The history of the automobile begins with the use of steam as an energy source in the 19th century and continues with the use of oil in internal combustion engines. Today, studies on the production of automobiles operating with alternative energy sources have gained momentum.
Automobile has established itself as the main means of transportation in the field of human and freight transportation in developed countries since its emergence. Automotive industry II. It has been one of the most influential industries after World War II. The number of cars in the world, which was 1907 in 250.000, reached 1914 with the advent of Ford Model T in 500.000. This number rose to over 50 million just before World War II. In the thirty years after the war, the number of automobiles has increased six times and reached 1975 million in 300. Annual automobile production in the world exceeded 2007 million in 70.
The automobile was not invented by a single person, it was a combination of inventions from all over the world for nearly a century. It is estimated that the emergence of the modern automobile occurred after approximately 100.000 patents were acquired.
Automobile broke new ground in transportation and caused profound social changes, especially the relationships of individuals with space. It facilitated the development of economic and cultural relations and led to the development of massive new infrastructures such as roads, highways and parking lots. Being seen as an object of consumption, it became the foundation for a new universal culture and took its place as a must-have item for families in industrialized countries. Automobile occupies a very important place in today’s daily life.
The effects of the automobile on social life have always been a matter of debate. Since the 1920s, when it started to become widespread, it has been the focus of criticism due to its effects on the environment (use of non-renewable energy sources, increase in the percentage of accidental deaths, pollution) and social life (increase in individuality, obesity, change of environmental order). With its increasing use, it has become an important competitor against the use of trams and intercity trains in the city.
Faced with significant oil crises in the late 20th and early 21st century, the automobile faced with problems such as the inevitable reduction of oil, global warming and restrictions on the emissions of polluting gases across the industry. On top of these, the global financial crisis between 2007 and 2009, which deeply affected the automobile industry, was added. This crisis poses serious difficulties to major global automotive groups.
The word automobile came into Turkish from the French word automobile, which is formed by combining the Greek words αὐτός (autós, “own”) and Latin mobilis (“moving”), which means a vehicle that moves itself instead of being pushed or pulled by another animal or vehicle. It was first used in Turkish literature by Ahmet Rasim in his work “City Letters” in the late 1800s.
Roger Bacon wrote in a letter to Guillaume Humbert in the 13th century that it was possible to build a vehicle moving at unimaginable speed without being towed by a horse. The first self-propelled vehicle in accordance with the lexical meaning is probably the small steam-powered vehicle made by Jesuit missionary Ferdinand Verbiest in Beijing between 1679 and 1681 as a toy for the Chinese emperor. Designed as a toy, this vehicle consisted of a steam boiler on a small stove, a wheel driven by steam, and small wheels moved by gears. Verbiest describes how this tool worked in his Astronomia Europa, written in 1668.
According to some, Leonardo da Vinci’s Codex Atlanticus from the 15th century contains the first drawings of a vehicle moving without a horse. Before Da Vinci, Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini used a drawing roughly similar to a four-wheeled vehicle and called “automobile” in his works.
In 1769, Frenchman Nicolas Joseph Cugnot brought the idea of Ferdinand Verbiest to life, and on October 23, he started a steam boiler-powered vehicle called “fardier à vapeur” (steam freight car). This self-propelled vehicle was developed for the French Army to transport heavy guns. Approximately 4 km per hour. reaching speed, the fardier had 15 minutes of autonomy. The first vehicle without a steering wheel and brake accidentally destroyed a wall during the trial. This accident shows the strength of the vehicle, which is 7 meters long.
The Duke of Choiseul, France’s then Minister of Foreign Affairs, War and Navy, was closely involved in this project, and a second model was produced in 1771. However, the Duke quits his job a year earlier than expected and does not want to deal with his successor, the fardier. The stowed vehicle was unearthed by the General Commissioner of Artillery LN Rolland in the 1800s, but it could not attract Napoleon Bonaparte’s attention.
Similar vehicles have been produced in other countries besides France. Ivan Kulibin began work on a pedal-powered and steam boiler-driven vehicle in Russia in the 1780s. Completed in 1791, this three-wheeled vehicle featured the flywheel, brake, gearbox and bearings seen in modern cars. However, as with Kulibin’s other inventions, the studies could not go further as the government did not see the potential market potential of this tool. American inventor Oliver Evans has invented steam engines operating with high pressure. He exhibited his ideas in 1797, but was supported by very few and died before his invention gained significance in the 19th century. Englishman Richard Trevithick exhibited the first steam-powered three-wheeled British vehicle in 1801. It travels 10 miles on the streets of London in this vehicle, called the “London Steam Carriage”. The basic problems with steering and suspension and the condition of the roads cause the car to be pushed aside as a means of transport and replaced by railways. Other steam car trials include an oil-powered steam car built by Czech Josef Bozek in 1815 and a four-seater steam carriage built by the Englishman Walter Hancock in 1838.